Entrepreneurial Orientation and Global Mindset
Ishaq Ahmad Dar and
Mahesh Chandra Joshi
Lovely Professional University, Punjab
Purpose: The study aims to examine the impact
of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Global
Mindset as determinants of Internationalization
in Small and Medium sized Enterprises; and
discusses implications to guide SMEs Owners/
Management in their efforts to successfully
Design/Methodology/Approach: A survey was
carried out on 200 SMEs located in India, which
were involved in international business.
Findings: Entrepreneurial Orientation and
Global Mindset impact positively on Interna-
tionalization, both Entrepreneurial Orientation
and Global Mindset are found as determinants
of Internationalization for SMEs in India.
Research Limitations: Data collection was
done at a single point of time. Therefore, effect
of changes over time was not allowed. Data was
collected from SMEs located in northern India
Practical Implications: The positive impact
of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Global
Mindset on internationalization of SMEs
would suggest that Owners/Management of Indian SMEs should focus on Entrepreneurial
Orientation and Global Mindset within their
organizations. As they act determining factors
for Internationalization of SMEs devising
favorable strategies can lead a successful
Originality/Value: Studies focused on
Internationalization of SMEs have been done
primarily in the context of developed economies.
SMEs have a significant contribution in
emerging economies, but business practices of
SMEs in these economies have not been studied
extensively. This study extends the literature
concerning determinants of Internationalization
in an important emerging economy such as India.
Global Mindset, India, Internationalization,
Small and Medium-sized Enterprises.
- Baldegger, R.J., & Schueffel, P.E. (2010,
January). An entrepreneurial perspective on SME
internationalization. In United States Association
for Small Business and Entrepreneurship. Conference
Proceedings (p. 41). United States Association for
Small Business and Entrepreneurship.
- Codotto, L. (2008). The Internationalization
Strategy of the Italian Manufacturing SMEs:
The Case of Imperia (Doctoral dissertation, Ph
D Dissertation, Wageningen University, The
- Covin, J.G. & Slevin, D.P. (1989). Strategic
management of small firms in hostile and
benign environments. Strategic Management
Journal, 10(1), 75-87.
- Covin, J.G., Green, K.M. & Slevin, D.P. (2006).
Strategic process effects on the entrepreneurial
orientation – sales growth rate relationship.
Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 30(1),
- Dickson, P.H., Solomon, G.T. & Weaver, K.M.
(2008). Entrepreneurial selection and success:
does education matter?. Journal of small business
and enterprise development, 15(2), 239-258.
- Ekeledo, I. & Sivakumar, K. (1998). Foreign
market entry mode choice of service firms: a
contingency perspective. Journal of the academy
of marketing science, 26(4), 274-292.
- Gupta, A.K. & Govindarajan, V. (2002).
Cultivating a global mindset. The Academy of
Management Executive, 16(1), 116-126.
- Guy, G.R. & Beaman, K.V. (2003). Global
Orientation and Sociolinguistic Accommodation
as Factors in Cultural Assimilation. International
Journal of the Humanities, 1, 990-1010.
- Harveston, P.D., Kedia, B.L. & Davis, P.S.
(2000). Internationalization of born global and
gradual globalizing firms: The impact of the
manager. Journal of Competitiveness Studies, 8(1),
- Hessels, J., Van Gelderen, M. & Thurik, R.
(2008). Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations,
and their drivers. Small Business Economics,
- Javalgi, R.R.G. & Todd, P.R. (2011). Entrepre-
neurial orientation, management commitment,
and human capital: The internationalization of
SMEs in India. Journal of Business Research, 64(9),
- Javalgi, R.R.G., Griffith, D.A. & Steven White,
D. (2003). An empirical examination of factors
influencing the internationalization of service firms.Journal of Services Marketing, 17(2),
- Kirby, D.A. & Kaiser, S. (2003). Joint ventures as
an internationalisation strategy for SMEs. Small
Business Economics, 21(3), 229-242.
- Knight, G.A. (1997). Cross-cultural reliability
and validity of a scale to measure firm
entrepreneurial orientation. Journal of business
venturing, 12(3), 213-225.
- Koch, A.J. (2001). Factors influencing market
and entry mode selection: developing the MEMS
model. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 19(5),
- Kogut, B. & Chang, S.J. (1996). Platform
investments and volatile exchange rates: Direct
investment in the US by Japanese electronic
companies. The Review of Economics and Statistics,
- Korsakienė, R. & Tvaronavičienė, M. (2012).
The internationalization of SMEs: An integrative
approach. Journal of business economics and
management, 13(2), 294-307.
- Kumar, D. Entrepreneurial Orientation and
Internationalization of SME’s.
- Levy, O. (2005). The influence of top manage-
ment team attention patterns on global strategic
posture of firms. Journal of Organizational
Behavior, 26(7), 797-819.
- Miller, D. (1983). The correlates of entre-
preneurship in three types of firms.Management
science, 29(7), 770-791.
- Murtha, T.P., Lenway, S.A. & Bagozzi, R.P.
(1998). Global mind-sets and cognitive shift in
a complex multinational corporation. Strategic
Management Journal, 19(2), 97-114.
- Naldi, L. (2008). Growth through internationa-
lization: A knowledge perspective on SMEs.
- Nummela, N., Saarenketo, S. & Puumalainen,
K. (2004). A global mindset—a prerequisite for
successful internationalization?. Canadian Journal
of Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des
Sciences de l’Administration, 21(1), 51-64.
- Prefontaine, L. & Bourgault, M. (2002).
Strategic Analysis and Export Behaviour of
SMEs A Comparison between the United States and Canada.International Small Business
Journal, 20(2), 123-138.
- Rhinesmith, S.H. (1995). Open the door to a
global mindset. Training & Development, 49(5),
- Runyan, R., Droge, C. & Swinney, J. (2008).
Entrepreneurial orientation versus small business
orientation: what are their relationships to
firm performance?. Journal of Small Business
Management, 46(4), 567-588.
- Ruzzier, M., Antonci C.B., Hisrich, R.D.
& Konecnik, M. (2007). Human capital
and SME internationalization: A structural
equation modeling study. Canadian Journal of
Administrative Sciences/Revue Canadienne des
Sciences de l’Administration, 24(1), 15-29.
- Scarborough, N.M., Idris, A., Che-Ha, N.
& Saad, M.N. (2012). Entrepreneurship and
sme development. Perspectives from Malaysia.
Pearson Malaysia Sdn Bhd, Malaysia, pp. 160-
- Shamsuddoha, A.K., Yunus Ali, M., & Oly
Ndubisi, N. (2009). Impact of government export assistance on internationalization of SMEs
from developing nations. Journal of Enterprise
Information Management, 22(4), 408-422.
- Smolarski, J.M. & Wilner, N. (2005). Inter-
nationalisation of SMEs: A micro-economic
approach. Journal of Business Chemistry, 2(2).
- Wright, M., Westhead, P. & Ucbasaran,
D. (2007). Internationalization of small
and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and
international entrepreneurship: A critique and
policy implications. Regional Studies, 41(7),
- Zahra, S.A. & Covin, J.G. (1995). Contextual
influences on the corporate entrepreneurship-
performance relationship: A longitudinal
analysis. Journal of business venturing, 10(1), 43-
- Zahra, S.A., Neubaum, D.O. & Huse, M.
(1997). The effect of the environment on
export performance among telecommunications
new ventures. Entrepreneurship Theory and
Practice, 22, 25-46.