Caution Notice

Volume 3, Issue 1

Home / Journal / Browse Issues / Journal Of General Management Research /
Volume 3, Issue 1

The Influence of Emotional Intelligence on Entrepreneurial Orientation of Enterprises Owned by Women Entrepreneur


Shailja Dixit and Sana Moid


Amity Business School, Amity University Lucknow Campus, Uttar Pradesh


The increasing growth of women entrepreneurs all over the world has disapproved the myth that entrepreneurship is associated with men. Entrepreneurial Orientation of men and women entrepreneurs owned enterprise remarkably differentiates in terms of their personality, working style, outlook and approach towards entrepreneurial situations, interactions and leadership. Intelligence and Emotions are the two basic factors that control and influence personality traits that results in the growth of entrepreneurial potential. In the modern world of entrepreneurs emotions are carefully crafting its niche.

Women are born with innate sense of Emotional Intelligence. Does possessing higher degree of Emotional Intelligence the key for the success and the prompt growth of women entrepreneurs? However, to date, the relationship between emotional intelligence and gender has been scarcely examined. Thus the present study tries to investigate the role of emotional intelligence for women entrepreneurs ‘growth and explains how they strike the perfect balance between individual and social skills.


Emotional Intelligence, Women Entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurial Success, Entrepreneurial Orientation, Entrepreneurial Skills, Social Skills

  1. A. Boren (2010). Emotional intelligence: The secret of successful entrepreneurship? Leadership in Agriculture, 2(1), 55-61.
  2. Baron, R.A., & Markman, G.D. (2000). Beyond social capital: How social skills can enhance entrepreneurs’ success. Academy of Management Executive, 14(1), 106-131.
  3. Baron, R.A., & Tang, J. (2008). Entrepreneurs’ social skills and new venture performance: Mediating mechanisms and cultural generality. Journal of Management, 35(2), 282-306.
  4. Brody, L.R., & Hall, J.A. (1993). Gender and emotion. In M. Lewis, & J.M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions, New York: Guilford, 447- 460.
  5. Brundin, E., Patzelt, H., & Shepherd, D.A. (2008). Managers’ emotional displays and employees’ willingness to act entrepreneurially. Journal of Business Venturing, 23, 221–243.
  6. Brush, Candida, N. Carter, Gatewood E., Greene P., & Myra Hart (2001). The Diana Project: Women Business Owners and Equity Capital: The Myths Dispelled. Kauffman Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, Kansas City, Missouri.
  7. Buttner, E. & Moore, D.P. (1997). Women’s organizational exodus to entrepreneurship: Self- reported motivations and correlates with success. Journal of Small Business Management 35(1), 34- 46.
  8. Chandler, G.N., & Hanks, S.H. (1998). An examination of the substitutability of founders’ human and financial capital in emerging business ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 13(5), 353-369.
  9. Chell, E. (2007). Social enterprise and entrepreneurship: Towards a convergent theory of the entrepreneurial process. International Small Business Journal, 25(1), 3-19.
  10. Ciarrochi, J.V., Hynes, K., & Crittenden, N. (2005). Can men do better if they try harder? Sex and motivational effects on emotional awareness. Cognition and Emotion, 19, 133-141.
  11. Coleman, Susan, & Alicia Robb (2012a). Gender-based firm performance differences in the United States: Examining the roles of financial capital and motivations. In Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Research: Diverse Settings, Questions, and Approaches, edited by Karen D. Hughes and Jennifer E. Jennings. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.
  12. Covin, J., & Slevin, D. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10(1), 75-87.
  13. Covin, J., & Slevin, D. (1988). The influence of organisational structure on the utility of an entrepreneurial top management style. Journal of Management Studies, 25, 217-37.
  14. Covin, J.G., & Slevin, D.P. (1991). A Conceptual Model of Entrepreneurship as Firm Behaviour. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, Fall, 7-25.
  15. Cross, B., & Travaglione, A. (2003). The untold story: Is the entrepreneur of the 21st century defined by emotional intelligence? The Interna- tional Journal of Organizational Analysis, 11(3).
  16. Das, J.P. (2008). Planning and Decision Making: Beware of Emotions and Illusions. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 17, 1.
  17. Dixit, S. & Moid, S. (2015). Women Empowerment through Microfinance: The Road to Developed Economy, aWEshkar Welingkar Research Journal, 20(2) 2.
  18. Dixit, S. ( 2015). Women Impediment and Its Impact on National Growth. Journal of Asian Business Management, (7)1, 67-75.
  19. Drucker, P.E. (1985). The discipline of innovation. Harvard Business Review, May-June.
  20. Feldman Barrett, L., Lane, R.D., Sechrest, L., & Schwartz, G.E. (2000). Sex Differences in Emotional Awareness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1027-1035.
  21. Fineman, S. (2003). Understanding emotions at work, London: Sage.
  22. Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed. New York: Basic Books.
  23. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2013.
  24. Gohm, C.L. (2004). Moving forward with Emotional Intelligence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 222-227.
  25. Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam.
  26. Goss, D. (2008). Enterprise Ritual: A Theory of Entrepreneurial Emotion and Exchange. British Journal of Management, 19, 120–137.
  27. Grossman, M., & Wood, W. (1993). Sex differences in intensity of emotional experience: A social role interpretation. Journal of Personality and social Psychology, 65, 1010-1022.
  28. Hansemark, Ove C., (1998). The effects of an entrepreneurship programme on Need for Achievement and Locus of Control of reinforcement, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 4(1), 28– 50.
  29. Harris, K.J., Kacmar, K.M., Zivnuska, S., & Shaw, J.D. (2007). The impact of political skill on impression management effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(1), 278-285.
  30. Hisrich, Robert, & Candida Brush (1984). The woman entrepreneur: Management skills and business problems. Journal of Small Business Management 22 (1): 30-37.
  31. Hisrich, R., Langan-Fox, J., & Grant, S. (2007). Entrepreneurship research and practice: A call to action for psychology. American Psychologist, 62(6), 575-589.
  32. Humphrey, N., Curran, A., Morris, E., Farrell, P., & Woods, K. (2007). Emotional Intelligence.
  33. Huy, Q.N. (1999). Emotional capability, emotional intelligence, and radical change. Academy of Management  Review, 24(2), 325– 345.
  34. Joshi, M. & Dixit, S. (2015). Capitalizing Resources & Capabilities by Enhancing Skill Development, Yojana, October 2015.
  35. K.S. Rhee & R.J. Watt (2007). The emotional intelligence of entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 20(4), 409-425.
  36. Kacmar, K.M., Carlson, D.S., & Bratton, V.K. (2004). Situational and dispositional factors as antecedents of ingratiatory behaviors in organizational settings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(2), 309-331.
  37. Kelley, D.J., Brush, C.G., Greene, P.G., & Litovsky, Y. (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2012 Women’s Report. Boston: The Center for Women’s Leadership at Babson College and London Business School.
  38. Knight, F.H. (1921). Risk, Uncertainty, and Profit. New York: Kelly and Millman.
  39. Kuratko, D.F., & Hodgetts, R.M. (2004). Entrepreneurship: Theory, process, practice. Mason, OH: South-Western Publishers.
  40. Kuzilwa, J. (2005). The Role of Credit for Small Business Success: A Study of the National Entrepreneurship Development Fund in Tanzania. The Journal of Entrepreneurship, 14(2), 131-161.
  41. Littunen, H., & Storhammar, E. (2000). The indicators of locus of control in the small business context. Journal of Enterprise Culture, 8(4), 343- 360.
  42. McClelland, D.C. (1973). Testing for competence rather than intelligence. American Psychologist, 28, 1-14.
  43. Lumpkin, G.T. & Dess, G.G.(1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to Performance. The Academy of Management Review, 21(1): 135–172.
  44. Lumpkin, G.T. & Dess, G.G. (2001). Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance: The moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(5): 429-439.
  45. Miller, D. (1983). The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Management Science, 29(7).
  46. Miller, D., Kets de Vries, M.F.R., & Toulouse, J.M. (1982). Top Executive Locus of Control and Its Relationship to Strategy-Making, Structure, and Environment. Academy of Management Journal, (2), 237-253.
  47. Mohanty, S.K. (2007). Fundamentals of Entrepreneurship. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India Private Limited.
  48. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Jackson, B. (2001). Mediators of the gender difference in rumination. Psychology of Women Quaterly, 25, 37-47.
  49. O’Boyle, E.H., Humphrey, R.H., Pollack, J.M., Hawver, T.H., & Story, P.A. (2010). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior.
  50. Powell, M. & Ansic, D. (1997). Gender difference in risk behavior in financial decision- making: An experimental analysis. Journal of Economic Psychology, 18(6), 605-628.
  51. Price, R.W. (2006). Entrepreneurship. Dubuque, IL: McGraw-Hill.
  52. Rauch, A., Wiklund, J., Frese, M. & Lumpkin, G.T. (2004). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: Cumulative empirical evidence. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson College, Braintree, MA.
  53. Rotter, J.B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs: General and Applied, 80(1), 1-28.
  54. Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) Version 2.0: Reliabilities, Age, and Gender Differences. Psicothema, 18, 42-48.
  55. Sapienza, H.J., Smith, K.G., & Gannon, M.J. (1988). Using subjective evaluations of performance in small business research. American Journal of Small Business, 13, 45-53.
  56. Schumpeter, J.A. (1934). The Theory of Economic Development: An Inquiry into Profits, Capital, Credit, Interest, and the Business Cycle, transl. by Redvers Opie, Harvard University Press: Harvard.
  57. Schumpeter, J.A. (1942). Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, Allen and Unwin: London.
  58. Shaver, K.G., & Scott, L.R. (1991). Person, Process, Choice: The Psychology of New Venture Creation. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, Winter, 16(2), 23-45.
  59. Shane, S., Kolvereid, L., & Westhead, P. (1991). An exploratory examination of the reasons leading to new firm formation across country and gender. Journal of Business Venturing, 6(6), 431-446.
  60. Shane, S. (2003). A general theory of entrepreneurship: The individual-opportunity nexus. UK: Edward Elgar.
  61. Shastri, R.K. & Sinha, A. (2010). The socio- cultural and economic effect on the development of women entrepreneurs (with special reference to India). Asian Journal of Business Management, 2(2), 30-34.
  62. Salovey, P. & Sluyter, D.J. (1997). Emotional development and emotional intelligence, educational implications. New York, NY: Basic Books.
  63. Salovey, P., Mayer, J.D., & Caruso, D.R. (2004). A Further Consideration of the Issues of Emotional Intelligence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 249-255.
  64. Wong, C.S., & Law, K.S. (2002). Development of an emotional intelligence instrument and an investigation of its relationship with leader and follower performance and attitudes. Leadership 13(3), 243-274.
  65. UNCTAD (2010) Report on Innovation.
  66. Vob, R. & Muller, C. (2009). How are the conditions for high-tech start-ups in Germany. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 7(3), 285-311.
  67. Yordavona, D.I. & Alexandrova-Boshnakova, M.I. (2010). Gender Effects on risk-taking of entrepreneurs: Evidence from Bulgaria. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 17(3), 272-295.
  68. Zahra, S., Gedajlovic, E., Neubaum, D., & Shulman, J. (2009). A typology of social entrepreneurs: Motives, search processes and ethical challenges. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(5), 519-532.
  69. Zampetenakis, L.A., Beldekos, P. & Moustakis, V.S. (2009). ‘Day-to-day’ entrepreneurship within organisations: The Role of Trait Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Organisational Support. European Management Journal, 27, 165–175.
  70. Zimmerer, T.W., Scarborough, N.M., & Wilson, D. (2007). Essentials of entrepreneurship and small business management (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.